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Fraud in Nigerian Crude Oil Selling: Authenticating The Crude Allocation and Files by Oil Purchasers


This observation by the investigation report on the subject matter, done by the Africans in The us News Observe, a New York dependent non-earnings firm, in August 2010, sums up the problem:

“There are a lot of real crude oil sellers in Nigeria but the dilemma is getting the actual and verifiable types. Crude Oil trade is a booming and thriving organization and a lot of individuals seem to be to want to go into it. Buyers from other nations around the world contact sellers in Nigeria in order to purchase Nigerian Crude Oil. [But the organization is now total of]… scammers on the prowl.” It provides that “There are lots of crude oil sellers in Nigeria, but the obstacle there is the potential to locate genuine and verifiable sellers.”

In stage of simple fact, as this author has amply documented somewhere else in one more study, the assertion that in the arcane planet of international crude oil buying and marketing nowadays the landscape is actually littered and crawling with fraudsters and scammers, is now a properly-set up, effectively-settled truth about which there can rarely be any severe argument or disputation in the contemporary global oil purchasing and selling business.

In consequence, offered that stark Actuality that “there are many legitimate crude oil sellers in Nigeria but the dilemma is getting the true and verifiable ones,” the huge million dollar question is this: AS A CRUDE Consumer, HOW THEN DO YOU GET Those SELLERS FROM Amid THE Complete Lot WHO ARE THE “True AND VERIFIABLE” Kinds?

THE Important? Most authorities, in the circumstance of Nigeria, say that fundamentally you (the crude purchaser) would have to demand and insist on the purported Vendor demonstrating you Authentic documentation and other proofs of possessing real BLCO and FLCO allocation from the Nigerian NNPC, as effectively as proof that that product is even now at present availability. (For Nigeria, the NNPC, which stands for the Nigeria Nationwide Petroleum Corporation, is a Federal govt-owned company that administers the acquiring and promoting of petroleum, such as providing allocation to authentic sellers of the crude oil in Nigeria).

THE Essential Documents IN NIGERIAN CRUDE OIL Acquiring/Promoting Business

There are some important paperwork that are essential in the purchasing of the Nigerian crude oil transactions. They will consist of the adhering to documents, among other folks:

– Seller’s shipping and delivery documents, such as: Thoroughly clean Ocean Monthly bill of Lading Seller’s Commercial Invoice
– Seller’s Proof of Product (will comprise the License to Export & the Acceptance to Export, issued by the country’s govt, assertion of Availability of the Merchandise, Port Storage Arrangement, etc)
– SGS/Sayboat Certification of Amount and Quality issued at the loading port
– Certification of Origin issued by the NNPC
– Certificate of Authenticity issued by the NNPC
– Constitution Get together Arrangement on the vessel, issued to the charterer of the vessel and presumably exhibiting that the vessel is in fact chartered in the specified Seller’s identify
– the Q88 questionnaire, filled out by the administrators of the vessel delivering the related information and specs of the vessel
– And many others.

Evidence OF Item

Most likely the most important doc of all that a crude customer could need to see from the vendor, is the correct Evidence of Merchandise (POP). This doc, which has to be one issued by the acceptable office of the NNPC in Abuja, Nigeria, serves as a very clear indication to a crude customer that the operator of the oil commodity has true possession of the solution, and also serves as an indicator that, at the very least as at the time of the transaction (but only at that time), the vendor has the commodity available for sale.

Critical: It should not just be any form of POP, even so. It needs to be a single that is in a structure that will permit satisfactory verification to ascertain that it is legitimate and authentic. Based on this writer’s study, to guarantee the ideal probability that this objective can be attained, there are essentially two kinds of POP files that are acceptable, and none other folks, and only sellers whose POP paperwork meet up with people “favored” POP files requirements, should to be entertained or attended to.

THE POP Must Fulfill THE Adhering to Problems.

A). It should have the Loaded vessel paperwork that are Current (that is, have to not be more than 2 times old, or else the document will immediately be turned down as it might indicate that the vessel is no longer obtainable), and must incorporate the pursuing documents:

i. A Existing Authority to Board (ATB). Seller must give, for the buyer’s inspection, the ATB that was exclusively issued to the original customer (consignee) of the crude in whose identify the vessel was issued. The title on the ATB have to match precisely with the identify on the POP and other files named right here. And, listed here once again, ibe kachikwu Need to be Existing – that is, it must be no much more than two times outdated. (An ATB that is more than two times aged, should be automatically be considered as symbolizing a vessel which is no more time available and hence not suitable).

ii. Certificate of high quality.
iii. Certificate of origin
iv. Cargo manifest
v. Vessel ullage report
vi. Certificate of amount.
vii. Invoice of lading
viii. ATS (Authority to Sell) from the NNPC


Usually, the Consumer may need (and hence the Vendor need to be willing and prepared to launch them), vessel particulars these kinds of as the adhering to: the name of the vessel, place of the vessel, the IMO name, contact indication and other vessel specifics. The explanation this is essential is so the consumer can do the monitoring of the explained loaded vessel, and to confirm its recent availability.


As in the scenario of the POP which reputable buyers’ facilitating outfits like the Reliable Dealings Intercontinental need from any AWR vendor prior to they can begin to do business with them, the other items that could often be required from a seller, would incorporate the adhering to:

= the Lifting Lease/License from the NNPC, and

= the Letter of Authority to Offer (ATS) from the NNPC. The Letter of Authority to Market, also called a Letter of Allocation, which ought to generally come from the NNPC’s Crude Oil Advertising and marketing Section, is fundamentally the formal document which demonstrates the buyer that the vendor truly has the authority from the official federal government agency for the crude solution that he’s marketing. (Need to usually be in a paper structure and on NNPC business letterhead need to have the day of problem and expiration date, and be signed. Scanned copies of document are alright. All files must be accredited, legitimate, reliable and verifiable.)

= If, for example, the seller claims that the cargo has been cleared, then he must normally be ready to give the CPA (Constitution Social gathering Agreement), the ATL (Authority To Load), and Q88 vessel information.

ALRIGHT, BUT HOW DO YOU Assure THAT THESE Documents ARE Authentic?

Okay, so let us say you’ve got assembled the suitable Evidence of Solution and the other important documents this sort of as people that are outlined above. There is certainly a single essential, in deed vital, concern that nonetheless remains for you – how do you assure that these files you’ve gotten from the vendor are even any great? That they are genuine, legitimate, Authentic and Legitimate to warrant your taking the Seller’s offer you significantly?

This concern is, possibly, usually the most vital for a customer because, as a rule, most fraudsters and con artists who operate in the Nigerian crude oil sector, are simply masterful forgers and copiers of every single bit of the legitimate industry files that are employed in marketing and acquiring functions by refineries and govt agencies, and who are extremely competent at the craft. As a result, purchasers are strictly wary by no means, at any time to take outright at encounter benefit or be ever fooled by, any document submitted by sellers or claims created by them, however seemingly convincing or actual-searching!. And what it all means, is that 1 vital facility that a crude oil customer and his aides need to quickly create and have, are some good, fool-evidence, resources or expertise by which they can INDEPENDENTLY Validate the authenticity of at minimum the key, most substantial items of files from between the tons of paperwork that sellers and their agents will often existing them in the system of hawking their products. And, earlier mentioned all, that they need to have the expertise and the knowledge and company sophistication to be in a position to detect which kinds amongst this sort of paperwork are legitimate and legitimate, and which kinds may possibly be basic bogus.

To be positive, making these kinds of verification and confirmation could usually be problematic for a purchaser. Even so, it is not truly that tough a activity, at minimum for the schooled and knowledgeable eyes. You only require to know what and what to look for, the right inquiries to inquire, and how to counter check and cross examine information and info. And, in any situation, each time in significant doubt about the authenticity of a document, you must often consider the route of warning – question for much more proof, or even reject the supply, relying on the certain details at concern in an offer.


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